C. of E.
250; Church of England
141; Giovanni Caboto (c. 1450 – c. 1499), known in English as John Cabot, an Italian navigator and explorer commonly credited as the first early modern European to discover the North American mainland, in 1497
591; began Transylvanian Crusade; Official emissary for Pope Eugenius IV in mid-15th century. In 1444, encouraged the king of Hungary, Ulaszlo I, to violate the Truce of Szeged and attack the Turks in an attempt to save Constantinople from the Ottoman Empire.
Cagliostro, Alessandro Conte (1743-95)
358; Italian adventurer, magican, and alchemist who travelled cities of Europe posing as physician, mesmerist, necromancer, and Freemason. Cagliostro claimed to know the secret of the philosopher's stone as well as miraculous philtres and potions. He was implicated in the Diamond Necklace affair, imprisoned and acquitted but left for Rome in 1789, where Inquisition charged him with heresy and sorcery and condemned him to die, but his sentence was commuted to life in prison where he died in a dungeon.
582; Slang: "beggars"
See Eleven Missing Days
268; Sir George Calvert (1580-1632), the first Lord Baltimore, was granted the colonial territory of Maryland by James I, but he died just prior to the charter being granted in 1632; Frederick Calvert, the sixth Lord Baltimore (from 1751 to 1777), was the man during the surveying of the M-D Line; Frederick, 301; Calvert agents, 337; Dixon's Calvert connections, 393
734; "chased by the Romans"
258; at the mouth of Delaware Bay, opposite Cape May, NJ. The beginning of the Mason-Dixon line is about twenty miles south of Cape Henlopen, at the Fenwick Island lighthouse.
310; a binary Latitude-Star - Capella (She-Goat) is the topmost star in the Constellation Auriga (The Charioteer); 332
188; London's Zenith-star
244 A tune played on bells, or a keyboard arranged to do so.
131; region SE India between Eastern Ghats and Coromandel coast now in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. It's coastline is in Andhra Pradesh, and is on the Bay of Bengal.
672; M-D Line crewman killed by a falling tree
Cartagena and Minorca
729; A reference to the Seven Years War, which began in 1756. Britain became involved because of competition with France for colonies in India and America. Minorca was taken from the British by a large French fleet; Admiral John Byng was sent to the rescue, but was forced to retreat to Gibraltar. This is the same year as the Black Hole of Calcutta, instigated by the Nawwab of Bengal, which gave the British reason to intervene. Robert Clive retook Calcutta, and won control of Bengal, India's richest province, the following year, thus laying the foundations of the British Empire in India.
167; the act of turning into cheese. As a side note, Casein, the predominant milk protein, is used to make  an early plastic, otherwise known as artificial horn, and used in button making. Its early production was centered in Stroud, close by.
175; on St. Helena
675; Latin: "occasion of war" - an event that allegedly justifies war or conflict
675; tribe at war with Iriquois
673; Delaware tribe; 680
730; "error he pointed out regarding the Allegheny Mountains"
469; Cecil is the North Eastern-most county in Maryland, with Cecilton close to the Tangent Line near its Southern border and including Octarara in its North West corner. It is bounded by the Susquehanna and Sassafras Rivers on its West and South sides and by the Line and the Tangent Line on its North and East. The emblem of Cecil Country is apparently a depiction of a male & female [d.html#duck">duck</a> flying together.
311; perfumes of; Now known as Sulawesi, this is an island off E. Borneo
548; his Lead Plates
- The lead plates of Céléron de Bienville, referenced by George Washington, are real. In a show of force to Pennsylvania traders who had begun settling more and more west into the French-owned Ohio River Valley, de Bienville sailed down the Ohio River by way of the Scioto River in August 1749. Along the way at strategic points he buried leaden plates inscribed with the declaration of title to the lands.
503; Latin: "other things being equal"
365, 417-18, 438; The Western Middle Ages conception of culture that describes Being as like a great chain with the top representing perfection in the highest degree (aka God) and the bottom representing the least possible perfection, which is nothingness (but not Evil). The chain in its entirety represents all degrees of perfection from the highest and fullest to the lowest and least; it is complete. Traditionally, it was also fixed; only God (e.g., Lucifer's fall and various miracles) and alchemists could cause a reordering.
In 1761, a book called Natural History of Animals by George Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (commonly refered to as "Buffon") (1707-1788), used the chain to justify colonization, placing Europeans above the natives they ruled. 
An astute reader on the Pynchon L pointed out links to Hawthorne's Ethan Brand: "He had lost his hold of the magnetic chain of humanity. He was no longer a brother-man, opening the chambers or the dungeons of our common nature by the key of holy sympathy, which gave him a right to share in all its secrets; he was now a cold observer, looking on mankind as the subject of his experiment, and, at length, converting man and woman to be his puppets, and pulling the wires that moved them to such degrees of crime as were demanded for his study."
184; where Bradley dies
744; aka Dr. Johnson
304; lawyer in Philadelphia
147; a ringlike band on the dial of a clock which bears the numerals or other sympbols of the hours
550; king of England and Ireland, 1625-49;
Charles II (1630-85)
335; king of Scotland and England from 1660; brother of James II (aka Duke of York), 336; 721
653; aka Ursa Major, referring to King Charles of France
252; The lord proprietors of England's colonial trading companies claimed special protections over their incorporated businesses, extended through their divinely granted authority, including permanency of incorporation, limited liability, and the legal authority to be free from community and worker interference. These protections were initially limited by the American colonists, whose intent in this area was to create a nation where the citizenry were the government and the government controlled the corporations--by ensuring that, if a corporation violated its agreement to obey all laws, to serve the public good, and to cause no harm, its charter would be revoked.
41; "There's something wrong with our bloody [not "dam'd"] ships today, Chatfield" - David Beatty (1st Earl Beatty), British Admiral of the Fleet (1916 - 1919), at the Battle of Jutland in 1916; quoted in Winston Churchill's The World Crisis 1916-1918 (1927) pt. 1, p. 129.
628; "operatick Personage"
Cherrycoke, Elizabeth ("Zab")
759; Wicks' sister who is married to J. Wade LeSpark; See LeSpark, Elizabeth
Cherrycoke, Reverend Wicks
6; the storyteller who, in a situation modeled on Scheherazade's in the Arabian Nights, may remain at the home of Ives LeSpark as long as he can keep the children (and of course the "Sultan" himself) entertained with his tale; Scheherazade, who married the murderous King Schahriyar, was able to extend her life by telling the king an enchanting story which remained incomplete at the end of each telling; the name "Wicks" also dovetails nicely with Tenebrae and has other interesting Etymological musings; on the Seahorse, 35; 85; Spiritual Day-Book, 275; Christ and History, 349; Lamp & Wick
243; town about 10 miles N of Durham
327; one of the Commissioners appointed by Lord Baltimore to settle the boundary dispute between Maryland and Pennsylvania; 436
336, 413, 421; Mr. Chippendale: Thomas Chippendale (ca June 5, 1718 - November 1779) (Wikipedia), a legendary "London cabinet-maker and furniture designer," whose designs--to this untrained poster's eyes--appear extraordinarily ornate?
Christ, Jesus H.
26; 101; 231; 260-61; 264; 288; Christ and History, 349; Eucharistic Sacrament, 384, 385; 409; Widows of, 419; goes away, 480-81; making Golems, 486; Holy Trinity, 495; Ascent to Christ, 511; 520; Wolf of Jesus, 522; Return, 568; Birth, 631; loaves and fishes, 700; 726
213; a very exact timepiece, usu. for use in determining longitude at sea. Now can mean any accurate timepiece; 321
177: primarily a timing device for reaction-time experiments, used to measure time during extremely brief intervals
235; Neopolitan fish dish
283 Cilia are hairs, or medically, eyelashes; so perhaps a wink.
230; Jesuit chastity belt, a wire girdle with sharp metallic points to irritate the skin; from Latin (cilicia: course garment made from haircloth); 520
- Cilice: a spiked chain worn around the upper thigh for two hours each day, except for Church feast days, Sundays, and certain times of the year. This is perhaps the most shocking of the corporal mortifications, and generally Opus Dei members are extremely hesitant to admit that they use them. It is a painful mortification which leaves small prick holes in the flesh, and makes the Opus Dei members tentative about wearing swim suits wherever non-Opus Dei members may be. 
241; 301; an instrument used in surveying to measure horizontal angles
289; 292; 309; 344; of Earth, 385; London, 391; "great Mother-City" 522; 548; "Anti-City" 609; 671; night-time, 749; in Chaos, 750; 771
74; aka "Clive of India"; English soldier and administrator who joined the East India Company in Madras. He attempted suicide, failed at it, and eventually distinguished himself against the French-Indian forces in Madras and, after marrying Margaret Maskelyne, returned to Britain a hero; he returned to India and avenged the Black Hole of Calcutta incident by retaking Calcutta and, at Plassy, he defeated the Nawab of Bengal. He returned to India several more times to aid the East India Company, but ultimately drew the opprobrium of parliament and committed suicide; brother-in-law of N. Maskelyne; 130; 160; 187; Dr. Johnson 'pon
134; location of monastery founded by Saint Brendan
297; working on Obs in Philadelphia; Clovis could be a reference to the first Frankish King. Under the Romans that big area between the Channel and the Alps was known as Gaul, after the Celts living there. Clovis and his Franks were a conquering Germanic tribe, and Clovis is more or less considered history's first Frenchman.
219; 418; 468
550; "Once it was a Cyst, growing within the Brain of a Cobra"; [[/pynchon/mason-dixon/extra/cobra.html">Discussion</a>]; See also [d.html#dasp">Capt. Dasp</a>
504; near where Dixon lived and which he avoided; Cockfield is a small village just a few miles north of Staindrop and a few miles West of Bishop Auckland in County Durham. Staindrop is a lovely little village with Raby Castle just on its edge. The Cockfield road heads out into open land and is quite bleak by contrast with the comfortable and civilized feel of Staindrop.
Cock Lane Ghost
183; in London; 359; 747
Cocks of Strasbourg and Lyon
376; other Mechanickal Fowl
"administering Enemas of Lucas the Cook's notorious Coffee" 54; 356; 467; "ingenious College Coffee Machine" 515
College of William and Mary
571; Nathe McClean attending, 573
26; a ship that transports coal
Columbus, Christopher (1451-1506)
487; First European to discover America; b. Genoa, Italy. In Portugal, he became a master mariner and was determined to reach India by sailing west. After eight years of supplication, he received the backing of the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand V and Isabella I. On Oct. 12, 1492, his ships, the Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria, reached Watling Island, in the Bahama group; later they touched Cuba and Hispaniola. He was made an admiral and governor general of all new lands. In 1493 he set sail with 17 ships, exploring Puerto Rico and the Leeward Islands, and founding a colony in Hispaniola. In 1498 he explored Venezuela, realizing that he had found a continent. Because of disreputable conditions in Hispaniola, he was replaced as governor in 1500 and returned to Spain in chains. On his last voyage (1502) he reached Central America. Although he is considered a master navigator today, he died in neglect, almost forgotten.
373; e.g. the Mechanickal Duck
Comte de St.-Germain
544; French scientist and member of the Académie Royale des Sciences, studied at the Jesuit College of Louis-le-Grand in Paris. In April 1735 La Condamine made a successful expedition to Peru with Bouguer and LeMaire to measure the length of a degree of meridian at the equator; LeMaire in Peru with, 544; 
304; site of Indian Massacre; Waggons, 638; MORE
27; Hubert de Brienne, Count de Conflans, was commander of the French fleet trapped by Admiral Hawke's fleet in Quiberon Bay and soundly defeated in 1759
608; "The Tonoloways (a.k.a. Conolloway) Settlement was the site of numerous disputes - both with Indians and Governments, the latter due to conflicts over the state line between Maryland and Pennsylvania - a state line which Tonoloways straddled, not always successfully, as is shown below. To research the Combs of Tonoloways, it has been necessary to first become familiar with the county organizations of both Pennsylvania and Maryland." From a now-defunct website.
367; the union of the Christ's body with the Eucharist (as opposed to transubstantiate)
21; Slang: belly dancers, or by extension prostitutes
Commander of the East India Company forces in Bengal commander-in charge in India. He led the British against the French in the Battle of Wandiwash; Battle of Wandiwash, 564; See also Battle of Wandiwash
From Wikipedia: In 1756 a part of the regiment, then quartered at Madras, was sent forward to join Robert Clive in his operations against Calcutta which had recently been captured by captured by the forces of the Nawab of Bengal, which had been followed by the Black Hole of Calcutta. The city was reoccupied without difficulty in January 1757. However, Coote and Clive argued so violently over who should reoccupy Fort William that they almost fired at each other, which began a lifelong rivalry and hatred between the two men.
7; chain-man on M-D Line crew; 445; impersonating M&D with Darby, 471
Copernicus, Nicholas (1473-1543)
545; Polish astronomer who, in 1530, completed his De Revolutionibus which proved that the sun was the centre of the universe; it was published in 1543, just prior to his death
708; John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) is considered by many to be America's first great artist although he ended up living and dying in London. He mainly painted Tories, and was ineffectually involved in some negotiations with the "violent Sons of Liberty" in the run up to the Boston Tea Party. His painting "Paul Revere" is considered to be (in the words of Robert Hughes in American Visions) "one of the icons of American identity." His "The Death of Chatham" depicts the death by stroke of the Pitt the Elder.
487; a kind of boat made of animal skins that has been in use since ancient times
439; A large basket formerly used for conveying, hoisting, or delivering, mineral coal or ore
264; "surrender of"
168; carries the Great Octuple Cheese
136; "Covent" is a corruption of "Convent"; the garden and burial ground attached to the convent or Abbey of Westminster; in the 18th century, with its numerous coffee-houses and taverns, it was a favored hang-out of poets, actors and artists; it was also the site of the Covent Garden Theatre which opened in 1732; 518; 527; 643; 674
11; Slang for a Frenchman (crapaud = toad, frog)
600; M&D's interpreter; 646; 648; dulcimer tune, 670
680; Mason's horse
276; Samuel Smith's adversary, aka "The Beast of Baltimore" and "The Maryland Monster". Cresap was a surveyor and a defender of the Calvert's boundary claims. In 1736, Smith, a Pennsylvanian, burnt Cresap's home to the ground while attempting to arrest him for the murder of Knoles Daunt. Once arrested, Cresap was taken by Smith and his men to a Philadelphia jail (upon entering Rhiladelphia, Cresap is said to have exclaimed to George Aston, one of his guards, "Damn it, Aston, this is one of the Prettyest Towns in Maryland"). Apparently, Cresap was so obnoxious that the Pennsylvanians quickly asked him to leave the prison and return home. He replied that he refused to leave until he was ordered to by the King. The order came on August 18, 1737. Kenneth P. Bailey, Cresap's biographer, seems to indirectly connect the "Maryland Monster" nickname with this event. (Thanks to Keith Woodward) Mason's Journal Entry; Cresap Biography; Grandfather, 584; 638
702; personal quirk
197; French: "crooked horn"; alternative spelling in English for krummhorn
Crooked Finger Inn
687; in Delaware
519; a Jesuit
Cross Keys, The
341; where M&D stay in Lancaster
Cudgel and Throck
227; Emerson's "local" in County Durham; a cudgel is a short heavy club; a throck is a spell that causes plants to grow, or also seen defined as "the piece of Timber on which the Suck is fixed, on a plough."
673; Latin: the Swan, a constellation
600; from Cymru, Welsh name for Wales; Welsh name for the Welsh people; the Celtic peoples considered themselves to be individual nations, and not part of some greater "Celtic" nation. The Welsh thought of themselves as Cymry or Britons, the Irish thought of themselves as Gael, etc. MORE...; See also Hu Gadarn